Pre-test Questions

Q1. What percentage of patients with diabetes have chronic kidney disease?
  a. 3.8%
  b. 12.2%
  c. 24.7%
  d. 38.6%
  e. 44.1%
Q2. Which risk factors increase oxidative stress and therefore lead to vascular damage that contributes to decreased kidney function?
  a. Increased LDL
  b. Increased BP
c. Diabetes
d. Smoking
  e. All of the above
Q3. In the FIDELIO-DKD study, which effect does the addition of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist finerenone treatment have on renal and cardiovascular events?
  a. Reduced UACR by 31%
  b. Decreased risk of CKD progression by 8%
  c. Reduced CV morbidity and mortality by 4%
  d. All of the above
  e. None of the above
Q4. Which GLP1 receptor agonists and SGLT2 inhibitors are effective in reducing the progression of nephropathy in patients with diabetes?
  a. Dapagliflozin and liraglutide
  b. Empagliflozin and semaglutide
c. Canagliflozin and liraglutide
d. All of the above
e. None of the above
Q5. What signs and symptoms are considered relevant to make the clinical diagnosis of diabetic kidney disease?
  a. Albuminuria indicated by elevated urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) with a repeated value >300 mg/g in presence of diabetes
  b. UACR 30-299 mg/g in the presence of diabetic retinopathy
c. 10 or more years duration of type 1 diabetes
d. Reduced eGFR of <60 in absence of other causes of kidney disease
e. All of the above
Q6. What are the effects of reducing the progression of diabetic kidney disease?
  a. Increased life expectancy
  b. Decreased cardiovascular event rate
c. Increased metabolic burden
d. a, b
e. a, b, and c
Q7. In patients with moderately increased albuminuria (30-299 mg/g or 3-29 mg/mmol), what level does the GFR reduction have to reach to make the risk of diabetic kidney disease progression high?
  a. Mildly decreased (60-90 mL/min/1.73m2)
  b. Mildly to moderately decreased (45-59 mL/min/1.73m2)
c. Moderately to severely decreased (30-44 mL/min/1.73m2)
d. Severely decreased (15-29 mL/min/1.73m2)
e. None of the above
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